The Michif languages are historically linked to Métis communities across the Métis homeland. The three Michif languages, commonly referred to as Southern Michif, Northern Michif, and French Michif, and are made up of elements from both First Nations languages and European languages – predominantly Cree and French.
is a mostly Cree-based Michif language, with fewer French nouns than Southern Michif or French Michif. Northern Michif has historically been spoken in Northwestern Saskatchewan and Northern Alberta
. Northern Michif may also be referred to as Michif-Cree or Île-à-la-Crosse Michif.
uses mostly Plains-Cree verbs and French nouns, but also borrows nouns from English, Saulteaux, and Cree
. Southern Michif is most associated with communities in southern Saskatchewan and North Dakota
. Southern Michif may also be referred to as Heritage Michif, Mixed Michif, or Turtle Mountain Chippewa Cree.
is based on a Western Canadian dialect of French, with some Saulteaux and Cree words
. French Michif has historically been tied to communities like St. Laurent and St. Eustache in Manitoba
. French Michif may also be referred to as Michif French.
The Amelia Douglas Institute aims to support all three Michif languages. On this page, we share language resources for Northern, Southern, and French Michif.